How to make footnotes?

Registration of footnotes in essays, term papers and dissertations is governed by the state standard. In this standard you will find the rules for bibliographic reference design. And we will consider the general requirements for footnotes in scientific papers, as well as the possibility of inserting links and footnotes in the text editor MS Word.

Types of bibliographic references

Before you make footnotes in a term paper or a thesis, decide which method of registration suits you best. Bibliographic references in scientific papers are arranged in three ways. They may be:

  • inline;
  • page by page;
  • over the text.

Inline links are placed immediately after the quote (inside the text) and are enclosed in square or round brackets. Such links are not numbered and are not formalized with footnotes.

Page references are numbered or marked with asterisks on each individual page where they are located. Issued footnotes at the bottom of the page, respectively, sequential numbering or marking.

Overtext links are issued in the form of a separate list, which is located at the end of the work. Such links have continuous ongoing numbering throughout the text.The numbering of the list of links corresponds to their numbering in the text.

Links can be primary or secondary. Secondary references contain abbreviated bibliographic information in the event that they are successively followed by a reference (primary) to the same source.

Link Design

Following the quote in the text follows the number or marking of the footnote. The reference number is in superscript Arabic numerals. Marking is made with one or several asterisks (*). The point at the end of the sentence containing the quotation is put after the designation of the footnote (behind the number or after the asterisk).

Bibliographical arrangement must comply. Required in the link: author, source name, output and number of pages. When making links, the number of the page or the range of numbers of the pages on which the quotation is placed in the source is given.

Page references are located at the bottom of the page under the shortened horizontal line. The text of footnotes is typed in smaller font than the main text of the work.

For example:

  • "Quote text"1.
  • "Quote text"2.
  • __________________________________________
  • 1Petrov, N. I. Theoretical Foundations of Econometrics. - M., 2000. - P.25.
  • 2Ivanov, I.I.Results of a sociological survey. - Kazan, 2013. - p. 8-9.


How to make footnotes in the Word? Consider the algorithm for putting footnotes on the example of a text editor MS Word (2010).

  • We set the cursor immediately after the word, after which the reference number should follow.
  • In the top menu of the program we find the Links tab - Footnotes. Select the item "Insert Footnote." Click it with the left mouse button.
  • We see at the bottom of the page a footnote window with its number.
  • Enter the content of the footnote in this field (bibliographic link).

The footnote is framed: at the bottom of the page under the line there is a link, its number is inserted in the text

Numbering of footnotes can be put down manually. You can also use the automatic numbering function. To do this, go to the tab "Footnotes" and click on the arrow in the lower right corner of this tab. In the window that opens, configure the numbering, design and location of links.