How to connect the light?
When building a country house, cottage or cottage, it is necessary to think in advance how to connect the light to the internal power grid. This is actually not as simple as it may seem at first glance. Despite the fact that now electrical networks have been conducted to the most remote corners of our country, immediate connection of the home power supply network to the power supply networks is not always possible. There are several reasons for this - not least the congestion of the existing networks and the impossibility of allocating the required power at the nearest substation.
In addition, if there is a kilometer or more from your new home to this substation, it simply doesn’t make sense to pull a low-voltage power line from it to home — the internal resistance of the wires will “eat” the lion's share of power and an unacceptably low voltage will be introduced into the house. In the only (and far from cheap) output will be the supply of a high-voltage line and the installation of its own substation near the house.
But how to initially determine the capabilities of existing networks and where to get the information,based on which you can decide on the method of connecting to the power grid? First, call the regional power company and find out which territory your site is in - municipal or regional networks. Then contact the chief engineer or director of the relevant organization (of course on the visiting days and hours). They have all the data you need - the location of the nearest substation, the available power reserve, the ability to connect. Immediately, you can estimate the approximate level of connection costs.
If there is no possibility of direct connection, do not rush to immediately purchase and install a substation. First, find out from your nearest neighbors - perhaps one of them has installed a substation and has the necessary power reserve. It is quite possible to conclude an oral or written agreement with him, draw a low-voltage line from it and connect the light to the house. On the other hand, a direct contract with municipal or district networks gives you greater independence. So you decide what is more important to you - the initial savings or complete independence in electricity supply.
If you chose the “independent” option and will enter into an agreement directly with the energy supplying organizations, then get ready for a thorny path to energy stability. If you break this way into the main stages, then you will:
- obtain permission to allocate capacity;
- get technical conditions for connection;
- design of the internal power grid (it is necessary to attract a design and construction organization with a corresponding license);
- coordination of the received project with the power supplying organization and with Gosenergonadzor;
- performance of work on an approved project by a construction organization with relevant work experience and license;
- testing of the internal and external power supply network and the signing of the “Acceptance Act” by the inspector of the State Energy Supervision;
- sealing of electricity meters and signing a contract with Energosbyt.
Immediately should be warned - do not expect to go this way quickly. The number of people wishing to connect significantly exceeds the capacity of the rapid response specialists of the power grid. As a rule, if you do not use additional "boosters" in the form of bribes and pressure from higher authorities, the whole procedure takes from three months to six months.
Important for any developer is the question of price, really, how much does it cost to connect the light? Exact calculations can be made only for each specific case and the cost of one project may differ from another by several times. However, it is possible to derive some average figures. Let's try to do a simple calculation of the connection of the home power grid with a rated power of 40 kW.
Drawing up a project will cost you about $ 1000. Approximately the same amount will cost electrical work. And the most significant item of expenditure will be the acquisition of a substation. You can stay at substations made in Russia, Ukraine or Belarus, cost 2000-2500. But they have a significant drawback - all substations manufactured in the CIS require regular maintenance, which in the future will also attract recurring costs. And you can buy a pillar mini-substation manufactured by ABB or Siemens, which are more reliable and do not require any maintenance after installation. These transformers cost $ 3500-4000. We will not take the cost of the internal electric accessories into account, since depending on the manufacturer and the specific implementation, the price of it may differ tenfold.
Total, connection to the grid without the "accelerating" investments will cost you about $ 4000-6000 for a cottage with a nominal consumption of about 40 kW.
Internal power distribution
The connection of internal consumers to the electrical network must be carried out strictly according to the drafted project (do not forget that after performing the electrical installation, you will need to sign the “Acceptance Act”). If the installation of electrical sockets is not particularly difficult - the main thing is to properly organize the grounding of the entire network, then before connecting the light switch, let us remember a little the theory of electrical circuits.
A conventional light bulb connects to a two-wire cable. One of the cores in the distribution panel is connected to the wire connected to “zero”, the second is connected to the “phase” through the interrupting switch. If the switch is installed on the wire connected to "zero", then, regardless of whether it is closed or open, one of the contacts of the cartridge will have a voltage of 220V. Why it is dangerous, there is no need to explain - any change of a light bulb turns into Russian roulette.
Before you connect a fluorescent lamp,make sure that there is a special starter circuit that ensures the start of the lamp and eliminates radio interference when it is turned on. It is best to use ready-made lamps daylight industrial production.
When addressing the issues of outdoor lighting, it is often necessary to think about how to connect a light relay that will automatically turn on the lights when it gets dark or when moving objects appear in the lighting zone. If you do not want to entrust the installation of such relays to specialists, then detailed instructions for their installation and connection can be found in any electrical engineering store.