How are railways built in Russia

A distinctive feature of railway construction in Russia is the linear nature of the work performed. The construction is carried out consistently along the entire length of the future path; Work begins at the starting point and ends at the end. Construction work is largely determined by the prevalence of harsh conditions in the country and depends on the weather, climate, as well as on the hydrological, geological and topographical drawing of the area.
The main stages of the construction of the railway - earthworks and construction of the upper structure of the highway. Excavation work includes the preparation, shaping and compaction of the roadbed along with the drainage of wetlands and protection from freezing. The construction of the road structure includes the formation of the rail base, laying, fixing and connecting the rails.
The construction of the railway necessarily includes the construction of artificial structures - drainage trays, drain pipes, overpasses, and so on.At the intersections with highways special transitional structures are arranged.
One of the most critical stages of work is the formation of a roadbed, which is a complex of engineering structures on the ground. Safety of road operation will depend on the quality of the canvas, because it perceives the main load from the rolling stock and distributes it to natural soil. The preparation of the canvas begins with the drainage of the soil, removal of groundwater, then follows the alignment and compaction of the soil. Most of the work is done using bulldozers, rollers, vibro-impact and tamping machines.
Simultaneously with the excavation work, travel work begins, including a set of measures for the construction of structural elements of the railway superstructure. At the same stage, sleepers and rails are laid. In this case, there are two ways of laying. The first method establishes the entire track links, pre-assembled at production bases. This is the fastest, but relatively expensive way. Another method involves the assembly of the so-called rail and sleeper grid directly at the work site.
At all stages of construction carry out operations of an alignment of a way.